Stork: Neural mechanisms of live joint attentionin autism spectrum disorders: an fNIRS hyperscanning investigation

SWETHASRI DRAVIDA (2018-02-16 to 2021-02-15) Neural mechanisms of live joint attentionin autism spectrum disorders: an fNIRS hyperscanning investigation. Amount: $76428

生活联合注意自闭症谱系障碍的神经机制:fNIRS hyperscanning调查

Abstract

Neural mechanisms of live joint attention in autism spectrum disorders: an fNIRS hyperscanning investigation Autism spectrum disorder is a prevalent disorder affecting 1 in 68 children worldwide, with significant mental and emotional toll on patients and their families. The biological basis of these disorders is still unknown, but deficits in initiating and responding to joint attention are one of the earliest signs and predict later difficulties with language and social cognition. Thus far, joint attention has largely been studied using neuroimaging of solo individuals as they engage in these tasks. However, recent studies support the hypothesis that specialized neural mechanisms are recruited during live interactions between people that cannot be detected with traditional single subject experiments. These specialized mechanisms may play a role in disorders of social communication such as autism. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) can be used to detect the brain activity from two individuals as they engage in a social interaction. This proposal aims to design and implement a novel joint attention paradigm using fNIRS in which two people are facing each other and engaging in the task, enabling an analysis of what neural mechanisms are unique to a live social interaction compared to interactions with videos or non-social cues, and how these mechanisms are altered in the brains of people with autism. The first aim is to develop a novel, two-person paradigm to study joint attention during live interaction between two people. This will necessitate the design of a two-person experiment with a live interaction condition as well as conditions using non-responsive face videos and an arrow as a non-social cue to direct the attention. The second aim is to examine the differences in the neural circuitry of individuals with autism as they engage in live social interactive joint attention tasks with a neurotypical partner. Brain activity detected using fNIRS will be determined for a live partner cue versus non-responsive and non-social cues. Areas that show greater brain activity during the live social interaction in typical adults will be analyzed in adults with autism to asses whether neural responses to live interaction are fundamentally altered in people with this disorder. The third aim is to analyze the coherence in response to rapid interaction cues between the brains of two individuals during live joint attention. Wavelet analysis will be used to determine what brain areas show increased coherence across paired individuals during the live interaction compared to the other conditions. Areas that show increased coherence in pairs of typical individuals will provide a hypothesis for testing coherence between pairs when one individual has autism. Evidence for neural mechanisms specific to live joint attention that are altered in autism will provide important advances in understanding the fundamental basis of this disorder.

项目概要:自闭症谱系障碍中共同关注的神经机制:fNIRS超分析研究自闭症谱系障碍是一种普遍的疾病,影响全世界68名儿童中的1名,对患者及其家属造成重大精神和情感伤害。这些疾病的生物学基础仍然未知,但启动和响应共同关注的缺陷是最早的迹象之一,并预测了后来语言和社会认知的困难。到目前为止,联合关注已经基本上用独立个体的神经影像学来研究,因为他们参与这些任务。然而,最近的研究支持这样的假设,即专门的神经机制是在人与人之间的现实交互过程中招募的,而传统的单一实验不能检测到这种机制。这些专门机制可能在社交传播障碍如自闭症中发挥作用。功能性近红外光谱(fNIRS)可用于检测两个人参与社交互动时的大脑活动。该提案旨在使用fNIRS设计和实施一种新颖的联合注意范式,其中两个人彼此面对面并参与任务,从而分析与视频或非视频交互相比,实时社交交互独特的神经机制。社会线索,以及这些机制如何在自闭症患者的大脑中发生改变。第一个目标是开发一种新颖的双人范式,在两人之间的现场互动中研究共同关注。这将需要设计具有现场互动条件的两人实验以及使用无反应的人脸视频和箭头作为引导注意力的非社交提示的条件。第二个目标是研究自闭症患者的神经回路的差异,因为他们与神经型伴侣进行实时社交互动联合关注任务。使用fNIRS检测到的大脑活动将针对现场合作伙伴提示与非响应和非社交提示进行确定。在典型成年人的社交互动中表现出更大的大脑活动的区域将在自闭症患者中进行分析,以评估在患有此类障碍的人群中,生活相互作用的神经反应是否发生根本性改变。第三个目标是分析两个人在现场联合关注期间脑内快速互动线索的一致性。小波分析将用于确定与其他条件相比,在现场交互期间哪些大脑区域显示配对个体间的一致性增加。在典型的个体对中表现出更高的一致性的区域将为一对个体患有孤独症时测试对之间的一致性提供假设。关于在自闭症中改变活的联合关注的具体神经机制的证据将在理解该障碍的基础基础上提供重要进展。

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