KEVIN A. PELPHREY (2009-08-01 to 2011-07-31) Neuroimaging of the Development of Neural Mechanisms Social Cognition. Amount: $735130
In response to Notice Number (NOT-OD-10-032) NIH Announces the Availability of Recovery Act Funds for Competitive Revision Applications (R01, R03, R15, R21, R21/R33, and R37) through the NIH Basic Behavioral and Social Science Opportunity Network (OppNet) we propose a significant new aim to the ongoing grant. The purpose of this new aim will be to rigorously assess the utility of pediatric functional near-infrared spectroscopy/tomography (fNIRS) methodology for the field of development social neuroscience, and to directly compare it to pediatric functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The development of brain mechanisms underlying adaptive social skills is key to the health and well-being of individuals, and to the society to which they belong. However, fMRI, our current best technology, has limitations that preclude many children from research, or contribute to unwillingness in parents to allow their child to participate. fNIRS addresses some of these limitations. We plan to directly compare fNIRS data collected using experiments currently being carried out with children in fMRI. This effort will provide a comprehensive and direct comparison of the fNIRS methodology for the study of social behaviors and processes. Demonstrating that fNIRS imaging data are extensible to the field of developmental social neuroscience would make possible a rapid advancement in a number of new research areas, including the study of populations that are currently inaccessible. Increasing the depth and breadth of the pool of potential research participants will speed scientific progress toward understanding the emergence of mental illness, the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders that affect social cognition and social behavior (e.g., autism, anxiety disorders, anorexia, and schizophrenia) and will strongly benefit the study of the normative development of the social brain. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: We plan to directly compare brain mechanisms for social behaviors and social processing using two imaging methodologies: magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy. The former is state-of-the-art, but is has limitations that hinder the scientific study of children, while the latter is unproven in the field of pediatric neuroscience. A successful demonstration of the usefulness of fNIRS would open new lines of research into how children's brains develop to function in a social world.
针对通知编号（NOT-OD-10-032），NIH宣布通过NIH基本行为和社会科学为竞争性修订应用（R01，R03，R15，R21，R21 / R33和R37）提供恢复法案资金机会网络（OppNet）我们为正在进行的拨款提出了重要的新目标。这一新目标的目的是严格评估儿科功能性近红外光谱/断层扫描（fNIRS）方法在社会神经科学发展领域的实用性，并直接将其与儿科功能磁共振成像（fMRI）进行比较。适应性社交技能背后的大脑机制的发展是个人健康和福祉以及他们所属社会的关键。然而，fMRI，我们目前最好的技术，有限制，使许多儿童无法进行研究，或导致父母不愿意让孩子参与。 fNIRS解决了其中一些限制。我们计划直接比较目前正在进行的实验中收集的fNIRS数据与fMRI中的儿童。这项工作将为fNIRS研究社会行为和过程的方法提供全面而直接的比较。证明fNIRS成像数据可扩展到发育社会神经科学领域，这将使许多新研究领域的快速发展成为可能，包括对目前无法获得的人群的研究。增加潜在研究参与者的深度和广度将加速科学进步，以了解精神疾病的出现，影响社会认知和社会行为的精神疾病的发病机制（如自闭症，焦虑症，厌食症和精神分裂症）和将大大有利于社会大脑规范发展的研究。公共卫生相关性：我们计划使用两种成像方法直接比较社会行为和社会处理的大脑机制：磁共振成像和近红外光谱。前者是最先进的，但是有限制阻碍儿童的科学研究，而后者在儿科神经科学领域尚未得到证实。成功证明fNIRS的有用性将为儿童的大脑如何在社会世界中发挥作用开辟新的研究线索。
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