ERIC S JACKSON (2019-04-01 to 2022-03-31) The Impact of Social-Cognitive Processing on Stuttering. Amount: $174592
Significant progress has been made in the functional neuroimaging of stuttering, but the complex interactions between brain, behavior, and environment that support stuttering remain incompletely understood. This gap in knowledge is due in part to the context in which neural activity has been observed. It is well known that stuttering occurs primarily in the context of social interaction?people tend not to stutter when speaking alone, or to babies and pets. Yet, in almost all cases, functional neuroimaging studies have focused on non-social and non- communicative speech. These studies point to atypical neural function within the speech and sensorimotor networks, but social-cognitive networks have not been directly investigated in this population. The long-term goal of this Early Career Research proposal is to develop a line of programmatic research that expands the study of stuttering from sensorimotor control into the social-cognitive domain. This proposal focuses on adults, with the goal of extending the approach to children in future studies. The overall objectives in this application are to determine the neural impact of two social-cognitive factors with particular relevance to stuttering?social interaction and anticipation?and determine the relationship(s) between these neural data and behavioral outcomes. The central hypothesis is that social-cognitive processing de-stabilizes the speech motor systems of adults who stutter. The rationale for this study is that determining the impact of social-cognitive processing on stuttering will contribute to the development of a strong theoretical framework that narrows the brain-behavior- environment gap and ultimately informs new directions in stuttering intervention. The central hypothesis will be tested by pursuing two specific aims. Aim 1 evaluates the neural impact of social interaction in adults who stutter (AWS) and those who do not by manipulating social context (i.e., the presence or absence of a communicative partner). Aim 2 determines the neural correlates of anticipation, which is rooted in prior social experiences, by comparing neural activation associated with ?feared? and ?non-feared? words (i.e., words expected and not expected to be stuttered, respectively), in AWS. Feared and non-feared words are determined during a novel clinical interview developed by the research team. This application is innovative in that it uses functional near- infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) which permits the measurement of neural signals during face-to-face speech communication, thereby increasing ecological validity in the neuroimaging of stuttering. The proposed research is significant because by expanding the study of stuttering into the social-cognitive domain, we will be able to address critical questions about how brain, behavior, and environment contribute to stuttering. In addition, focusing on social interaction and anticipation has specific treatment implications. For example, identifying the neural correlates of stuttering during social interaction can be used to guide neuromodulation approaches such as transcranial direct current stimulation that are now beginning to be applied to stuttering.
口吃的功能性神经影像学已取得重大进展，但支持口吃的大脑，行为和环境之间的复杂相互作用仍未得到充分了解。这种知识差距部分是由于观察到神经活动的背景。众所周知，口吃主要发生在社交互动的背景下？人们在单独说话时，或者对于婴儿和宠物时，往往不会口吃。然而，在几乎所有情况下，功能性神经影像学研究都集中在非社交和非交际语言上。这些研究指出语音和感觉运动网络中的非典型神经功能，但社会认知网络尚未在该人群中直接研究。这项早期职业研究提案的长期目标是开发一系列程序性研究，将对感觉运动控制的口吃研究扩展到社会认知领域。该提案侧重于成年人，目标是在未来的研究中将这种方法扩展到儿童。本申请的总体目标是确定两种社会认知因素的神经影响，这些因素与口吃，社交互动和预期特别相关，并确定这些神经数据与行为结果之间的关系。中心假设是社会认知加工使得口吃的成年人的言语运动系统失去稳定作用。这项研究的基本原理是，确定社会认知加工对口吃的影响将有助于形成一个强大的理论框架，缩小大脑 - 行为 - 环境差距，并最终为口吃干预提供新方向。中心假设将通过追求两个具体目标来检验。目标1评估口吃成人（AWS）和不通过操纵社会背景（即交流伙伴的存在或不存在）的成年人的社交互动的神经影响。目标2通过比较与恐惧相关的神经激活来确定预先的神经相关性，这种相关性源于先前的社会经验。并且？非恐惧？ AWS中的单词（即，预期和预期不会被断言的单词）。在研究小组开发的一项新的临床访谈中确定了恐惧和非恐惧的词汇。该应用是创新的，因为它使用功能性近红外光谱（fNIRS），其允许在面对面语音通信期间测量神经信号，从而提高口吃的神经成像中的生态有效性。拟议的研究具有重要意义，因为通过将口吃研究扩展到社会认知领域，我们将能够解决关于大脑，行为和环境如何导致口吃的关键问题。此外，关注社会互动和预期具有特定的治疗意义。例如，在社交互动期间识别口吃的神经相关可以用于指导神经调节方法，例如现在开始应用于口吃的经颅直流电刺激。
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