KENNETH R. PUGH (2017-09-11 to 2022-06-30) Tracking neurocognitive changes during evidence-based reading instruction in typically and atypically developing children. Amount: $2190083
Treatment studies have shown pre to post changes in reading circuits with evidence based remediation of reading disability, establishing the neural signature of successful treatment outcome. However, insight into the neurobiological mechanisms by which treatment produces these consequences/outcome requires monitoring modulations of key brain regions throughout the course of treatment and such data are lacking. Moreover, in any cohort some RD children with highly similar profiles on standardized testing at the beginning of intervention will show large gains and others will not. In the current proposal children with reading difficulties will be followed through an evidence-based training program focused on learning print-sound relationships with progressive emphasis at three grain sizes (grapheme-to-phoneme (GP), body/rime, and morphological) and the school-based small group instruction will be supplemented by online practice to reinforce training with an evidence-based computer assisted reading instruction (CARI). Cognitive testing and functional neuroimaging (before and after the intervention) with comparisons to untreated RD and TD control groups will allow for the identification of key neurocognitive factors associated with response to treatment. Eight recordings of brain activity using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging throughout the 20 weeks of instruction will be used to identify how online modulation of circuits during treatment relates to weekly measures of reading performance - growth spurts (or regressions) over the course of treatment. This dynamic tracking study will yield new insights into how evidence-based training modulates brain organization for learning to support reading gains and why it fails to do so for some children. Specific Aims are: 1) To examine the pre to post training changes in print and speech activation and functional connectivity in relation to variable treatment responses. 2) To track dynamic adaptive changes in activation and functional connectivity during treatment that predict local growth spurts and outcomes in RD. Aim 3) To examine neurocognitive changes associated with training on progressively larger grain-size units during treatment (GP, body/rime, morphological) and how these patterns are qualified by individual differences in pre-treatment profiles.
治疗研究显示，阅读电路的前后变化具有基于证据的阅读障碍修复，建立成功治疗结果的神经特征。然而，对治疗产生这些后果/结果的神经生物学机制的深入了解需要在整个治疗过程中监测关键脑区域的调节，并且缺乏这样的数据。此外，在任何一个队列中，在干预开始时标准化测试中具有高度相似特征的一些RD儿童将显示出巨大的收益而其他人则不会。在目前的提案中，阅读困难的儿童将通过循证培训计划进行跟踪，该计划的重点是学习印刷 - 声音关系，逐步强调三种粒度（石墨烯 - 音素（GP），身体/霜和形态学）和以学校为基础的小组教学将通过在线练习进行补充，以通过基于证据的计算机辅助阅读教学（CARI）加强培训。认知测试和功能性神经影像学（干预前后）与未经治疗的RD和TD对照组进行比较，可以确定与治疗反应相关的关键神经认知因素。在整个20周的指导过程中使用功能性近红外光谱（fNIRS）成像进行八次大脑活动记录将用于确定治疗期间电路的在线调制如何与每周的阅读表现测量相关 - 在课程中增长突然（或回归）治疗。这项动态跟踪研究将为基于证据的培训如何调节大脑组织学习以支持阅读收益以及为什么它不能为某些孩子这样做提供新的见解。具体目标是：1）检查培训前后的培训变化，以及与变量治疗反应相关的印刷和语音激活以及功能连接。 2）跟踪治疗期间激活和功能连接的动态适应性变化，预测RD中的局部生长突增和结果。目的3）检查与治疗期间逐渐增大的粒度单位训练相关的神经认知变化（GP，身体/身体，形态）以及这些模式如何通过治疗前的个体差异来确定。
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