JOSEPH P CULVER (2018-09-24 to 2022-06-30) Wireless High-Density Diffuse Optical Tomography for Decoding Brain Activity. Amount: $1361434
This grant will develop a wireless wearable high-performance, high-density diffuse optical tomography (DOT) instrument for mapping of brain function in naturalistic settings. Functional neuroimaging of healthy adults has enabled mapping of brain function and revolutionized cognitive neuroscience. Increasingly, functional neuroimaging is being used in younger age groups, and as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in the clinical setting. Its expanding application in the study of both health and disease necessitates new, more flexible tools. The logistics of traditional functional brain scanners (e.g., fMRI) are ill-suited to many subjects. In particular, fMRI is not suited for imaging subjects who cannot lie sufficiently still in MRI scanners. In addition to young children (i.e. under 5 years old) in general, this requirement also excludes children with disorders of voluntary movement, such as moderate to severe cerebral palsy. A majority of patients with CP have either spasticity and/or dyskinesia, movement disorders that prohibits successful fMRI due to motion artifacts. A subset of CP subjects can be considered to have effectively a pediatric form of a ?locked-in-syndrome?, in the sense that, while intelligence can be spared entirely, motor system dysfunction prevents the ability to speak or sign. Not uncommonly, the intellectual capacities of these children are never recognized by care-providers, educators, and family members. Thus, there are many intriguing questions in the CP population that could be addressed with functional neuroimaging, such as questions of motor plasticity and learning, perhaps the most compelling is identifying and characterizing the cognitive and neuroanatomical architecture of children with CP who are locked in. Such work could provide a path to unlocking the cognitive capacities of children with severe motor dysfunction. These studies cannot be done with fMRI. Optical imaging has long held promise as a naturalistic neuroimaging technique. Recent development of high- density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT), a tomographic version of fNIRS, has improved image quality dramatically. When matched within subjects against fMRI, HD-DOT now can obtain localization errors <5mm, and point spread functions <15 mm FWHM, sufficient to localize functions to gyri. While initial HD-DOT reports have been confined to simpler sensory networks (visual and motor), recent results demonstrate the feasibility of mapping distributed cognitive networks, including the dorsal attention and default mode networks. Despite these advances, application of HD-DOT to naturalistic studies has been limited by a barrier imposed by a tradeoff between coverage and wear-ability. The central photonic challenges are optical sensitivity - which would bias design towards larger/heavier fibers, and coverage - which would bias design towards a larger number of fibers. In this proposal, Aims 1-2 address the technological challenges of developing a lightweight wireless HD-DOT(WHD-DOT) system. Aim 3 develops the functional neuroimaging paradigms needed to map and decode brain function with WHD-DOT. In Aim 4, we assess the feasibility of mapping and decoding pediatric patients with cerebral palsy using WHD-DOT.
项目概要该项目将开发一种无线可穿戴高性能，高密度漫射光学层析成像（DOT）仪器，用于在自然环境中绘制脑功能。健康成人的功能性神经成像已经实现了脑功能的映射和革命性的认知神经科学。功能性神经影像学越来越多地用于较年轻的年龄组，并作为临床环境中的诊断和预后工具。它在健康和疾病研究中的不断扩展的应用需要新的，更灵活的工具。传统功能性脑部扫描仪（例如，fMRI）的物流不适合许多科目。特别是，fMRI不适合于在MRI扫描仪中不能充分躺卧的受试者。除了幼儿（即5岁以下）之外，这一要求还排除了患有自主运动障碍的儿童，例如中度至重度脑瘫。大多数CP患者具有痉挛和/或运动障碍，运动障碍，由于运动伪影而禁止成功的fMRI。可以认为CP受试者的一个子集实际上具有儿童形式的“锁定综合征”，在某种意义上，虽然智力可以完全不受影响，但是运动系统功能障碍阻止了说话或签名的能力。并非罕见的是，这些儿童的智力能力从未得到护理人员，教育工作者和家庭成员的认可。因此，CP群体中有许多有趣的问题可以用功能性神经影像学解决，例如运动可塑性和学习问题，也许最引人注目的是识别和表征被锁定的CP儿童的认知和神经解剖结构。这样的工作可以提供解开严重运动功能障碍儿童认知能力的途径。这些研究不能用fMRI完成。光学成像作为自然神经成像技术长期以来一直是有希望的。最近开发的高密度漫反射光学断层扫描（HD-DOT），fNIRS的断层扫描版本，显着改善了图像质量。当针对fMRI在受试者内匹配时，HD-DOT现在可以获得<5mm的定位误差，并且点扩散函数<15mm FWHM，足以将功能定位到回旋。虽然最初的HD-DOT报告仅限于更简单的感觉网络（视觉和电机），但最近的结果证明了映射分布式认知网络的可行性，包括背侧注意和默认模式网络。尽管取得了这些进展，但HD-DOT在自然研究中的应用受到覆盖率和耐磨性之间权衡所带来的障碍的限制。中心光子挑战是光学灵敏度 - 这会将设计偏向更大/更重的光纤和覆盖范围 - 这会使设计偏向更大数量的光纤。在该提案中，Aims 1-2解决了开发轻型无线HD-DOT（WHD-DOT）系统的技术挑战。目标3开发了用WHD-DOT映射和解码脑功能所需的功能性神经影像学范例。在目标4中，我们评估使用WHD-DOT绘制和解码患有脑瘫的儿科患者的可行性。
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