Bollella, Lee, Blaauw, Katz (2020) A Microelectronic Sensor Device Powered by a Small Implantable Biofuel Cell Chemphyschem : a European journal of chemical physics and physical chemistry 21(1) 120-128


Biocatalytic buckypaper electrodes modified with pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and bilirubin oxidase for glucose oxidation and oxygen reduction, respectively, were prepared for their use in a biofuel cell. A small (millimeter-scale; 2×3×2 mm3 ) enzyme-based biofuel cell was tested in a model glucose-containing aqueous solution, in human serum, and as an implanted device in a living gray garden slug (Deroceras reticulatum), producing electrical power in the range of 2-10 μW (depending on the glucose source). A microelectronic temperature-sensing device equipped with a rechargeable supercapacitor, internal data memory and wireless data downloading capability was specifically designed for activation by the biofuel cell. The power management circuit in the device allowed the optimized use of the power provided by the biofuel cell dependent on the sensor operation activity. The whole system (power-producing biofuel cell and power-consuming sensor) operated autonomously by extracting electrical energy from the available environmental source, as exemplified by extracting power from the glucose-containing hemolymph (blood substituting biofluid) in the slug to power the complete temperature sensor system and read out data wirelessly. Other sensor systems operating autonomously in remote locations based on the concept illustrated here are envisaged for monitoring different environmental conditions or can be specially designed for homeland security applications, particularly in detecting bioterrorism threats. © 2020 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.