Renaud, Sarfehnia, Bancheri, Seuntjens (2019) Absolute dosimetry of a 1.5 T MR-guided accelerator-based high energy photon beam in water and solid phantoms using Aerrow Medical physics ()
In this work, the fabrication, operation, and evaluation of a probe-format graphite calorimeter - herein referred to as Aerrow - as an absolute clinical dosimeter of high-energy photon beams while in the presence of a B = 1.5 T magnetic field, is described. Comparable to a cylindrical ionization chamber (IC) in terms of utility and usability, Aerrow has been developed for the purpose of accurately measuring absorbed dose to water in the clinic with a minimum disruption to the existing clinical workflow. To our knowledge, this is the first reported application of graphite calorimetry to MRI-guided radiotherapy. Based on a previously numerically-optimized and experimentally-validated design, an Aerrow prototype capable of isothermal operation was constructed in-house. Graphite-to-water dose conversions as well as magnetic field perturbation factors were calculated using Monte Carlo, while heat transfer and mass impurity corrections and uncertainties were assessed analytically. Reference dose measurements were performed in the absence and presence of a B = 1.5 T magnetic field using Aerrow in the 7 MV FFF photon beam of an Elekta MRI-linac and were directly compared to results obtained using two calibrated reference class IC types. The feasibility of performing solid phantom-based dosimetry with Aerrow and the possible influence of clearance gaps is also investigated by performing reference-type dosimetry measurements for multiple rotational positions of the detector and comparing the results to those obtained in water. In the absence of the B-field, as well as in the parallel orientation while in the presence of the B-field, the absorbed dose to water measured using Aerrow was found to agree within combined uncertainties with those derived from TG-51 using calibrated reference class ICs. Statistically significant differences on the order of (2 - 4) %, however, were observed when measuring absorbed dose to water using the ICs in the perpendicular orientation in the presence of the B-field. Aerrow had a peak-to-peak response of about 0.5 % when rotated within the solid phantom regardless of whether the B-field was present or not. This work describes the successful use of Aerrow as a straightforward means of measuring absolute dose to water for large high-energy photon fields in the presence of a 1.5 T B-field to a greater accuracy than currently achievable with ICs. The detector-phantom air gap does not appear to significantly influence the response of Aerrow in absolute terms, nor does it contribute to its rotational dependence. This work suggests that the accurate use of solid phantoms for absolute point dose measurement is possible with Aerrow. © 2019 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.