Input Gender difference in decption during a card game, a fMRI hyperscanning study
AI writes: The present study aims to verify whether there are gender differences in the neural mechanisms underlying deception of others during a card game using functional MRI (fMRI). We recruited 22 healthy right-handed male volunteers and 22 healthy right-handed female volunteers. Using hyperscanning functional MRI, we examined the brain activities of the participants while they were engaged in a card game in which deception of others was required. We found that the brain activities in the right insula and right temporal gyrus were significantly higher in the males than in the females during the deception of others, whereas no significant difference was found in the brain activities in other regions. The present findings suggest that there are gender differences in the neural mechanisms underlying deception of others, with males using the right insula and right temporal gyrus, which are associated with representations of the self and others, more than females.
Input Quality of life in children with single ventricle using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory
AI writes: Purpose: To determine the relationship between the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory and clinical parameters in children with functional single ventricles. Methods: Forty-four children were recruited from September, 1997 to March, 2002. Each child had to have a single ventricle, mean age 5.2 ± 1.5 years (range, 1.0–11.0 years), and be in an ideal condition for echocardiography (defined as a normal cardiac and pulmonary function test and no history of positive family history or cardiac arrest). The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory was administered to the children at baseline and after follow-up. The Pediatric Echocardiography Quality of Life Inventory was used to assess the echocardiographic quality of life for the children. The patient data were obtained from the pediatric cardiology database. Results: The two inventories correlated highly (r s = 0.95, P < 0.001) and correctly classified more than 90% of children. Children with lower quality of life had higher heart rate values (r s = −0.29, P = 0.005) and lower echocardiographic ejection fraction (EF) (r s = −0.35, P = 0.0017). The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory was superior to the Pediatric Echocardiography Quality of Life Inventory in predicting echocardiographic EF (P = 0.037) and lower heart rate values (P = 0.04). Logistic regression analysis showed that the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory was independent of both EF and heart rate (P = 0.230 and P = 0.155, respectively), but explained significantly more variance in ...
Input Primary V1 neurons encode anger
AI writes: The perception of facial expressions is important for social communication. The human brain has a set of specialized face-sensitive areas, which are activated when people look at faces expressing emotions such as anger and happiness. However, it is not clear how the activity of individual neurons in these regions relates to specific emotional states. By combining functional neuroimaging with single-neuron recordings in humans we show that the primary visual cortex (V1) contains a population code for angry expressions: V1 neurons become active following presentation of angry faces independent from their position on the retina and irrespective of whether they were presented alone or among other neutral faces. Furthermore, this selectivity was present only within an extended area centered around fixation suggesting that V1 represents gaze directionally biased representations rather than holistic scenes. We also found that cells selective for happy or fearful expression were relatively rare compared to those encoding anger; however, some cells responded selectively to both positive and negative stimuli thus providing evidence against purely antagonistic interactions between happiness and fear responses during early cortical processing ...
Input Unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics
AI writes: The aim of this talk is to discuss the interplay between general relativity and quantum mechanics. We review the conceptual problems that arise when one tries to combine these two theories, in particular we address the issue of quantum gravity. Then we present a new formulation of general relativity which can be seen as an effective field theory for describing black holes. The resulting framework allows us to study quantization directly from within Einstein's equations without having to add extra dynamical degrees of freedom or modify their structure significantly. We then show how this approach leads naturally to a new interpretation of Hawking radiation and thermal properties of black holes, by identifying them with thermodynamical quantities such as entropy and temperature.
Input microwave plasma CVD
AI writes: This work presents a new plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for the fabrication of microwave plasma-enhanced diamond (MP-D) films. The plasma-enhanced diamond deposition (PED) process is based on the deposition of diamond films from a mixture of carbon and nitrogen gases in the presence of microwave plasma. This technique has been applied to the fabrication of microwave plasma-enhanced diamond films on Si substrates. The results show that the deposition of microwave plasma-enhanced diamond films can be achieved at a bias of ±1.5 kV with a bias frequency of 85 MHz. The plasma-enhanced diamond films fabricated on Si substrates show an average film thickness of 1.5 um and a sheet resistance of 3.3 u/sq. The films have a bandgap of 2.1 eV and a carrier concentration of 6-1017 cm3. The fabricated microwave plasma-enhanced diamond films show a field-effect mobility of 2.5 cm2/V s.
Input Investigation of spider fiber
AI writes: In this article I provide a summary of the two most important aspects related to spider silk technology: The first is feasibility namely that the commercial production and processing of spider silks can be achieved. The second aspect concerns its biological origin which has been subject not only by those who claim it based mainly on morphological studies, but also by botanists who are in disagreement about whether or not we are dealing with any kind of secondary characteristics due natural evolution processes. The discussion here will narrate my views on these issues and leads me to conclude that undoubtedly high technological improvement in the development of new products from ancient techniques does exist even though this may be slight so far, as compared with other possible sectors like Nano-technology's autocatalysis for example.
Input Similarity between convolutional network and human visual cortex
AI writes: We present a comparison of the features used by two convolutional neural network architectures and those found in primary visual cortex (V1) of humans. The first architecture is VGG-16, which was trained on ImageNet, while the second is a deeper model that we have called ConvNet9v2. We show that both models are similar to V1: they use small neurons with spatially localized receptive fields; their response profiles exhibit an exponential shape close to those observed in V1; the spatial frequencies at which neurons respond best has been tuned for orientation tuning just below what is typical for human vision; and finally, their response profile along the vertical meridian shows that these deep networks share our preference for high temporal acuity combined with low spatial resolution.
Input Organoid servers as a model for inflammatory bowel diseases
AI writes: The intestinal epithelium is a complex tissue, which undergoes constant renewal. In the human gastrointestinal tract, this process involves several stem cell populations that reside in specialized niches and are responsible for maintaining homeostasis and repairing damage to the mucosal lining. The development of organoid systems has allowed us to study these processes in vitro. We have developed two organoid models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): one based on primary human colonic crypts and another based on induced pluripotent stem cells derived from patients with IBD or healthy controls. These models recapitulate many features observed during colitis including loss of crypt architecture, increased proliferation, reduced differentiation and apoptosis as well as an altered expression pattern of genes involved in inflammation resolution. Moreover they allow us to assess therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the immune response during inflammation by using specific drugs such as mesalazine or biologic agents such as infliximab or vedolizumab Innovation: This paper describes how researchers used iPSCs generated from patients with Crohn's disease (CD) together with patient-derived 3D cultures known as "organoids" to model CD more accurately than previously possible through studying only 2D monolayers grown under standard laboratory conditions ...
Input Moral decision information seeking
AI writes: In this study, we investigated the role of moral decision making in information seeking. We hypothesized that participants would be more likely to seek additional information after a morally ambiguous scenario than after a morally unambiguous one. In Experiment 1, participants read about an ambiguous or unambiguous situation and then rated their need for further information about it. They also completed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) to assess individual differences in moral concerns (Graham et al., 2011). As expected, people reported greater informational needs following the ambiguous scenario than after the unambiguous one; moreover, individuals who scored higher on care/harm concerns were especially likely to report increased informational needs following ambiguity compared with those who scored lower on these concerns. In Experiment 2, we manipulated whether participants had access to further information by presenting them with either an advertisement for a product related to the scenario they read or an unrelated ad before asking them how much they wanted more info about what happened next. Participants who saw ads related to their scenarios showed significantly stronger desire for additional info than did those who saw unrelated ads; again, this effect was particularly pronounced among high-care/harm scorers. Together these results suggest that reading about situations involving harm may lead people not only to think about what happened but also how much they want specific details and explanations regarding why things occurred as they did—a finding consistent with research showing that people are motivated by curiosity when considering harmful events (Harmon-Jones & Harmon-Jones, 2013).
Input Equality, freedom, and justice
AI writes: In this paper, I will argue that the principle of equality should be understood as a requirement to treat people with equal concern and respect. This interpretation has several important implications for our understanding of justice. First, it implies that inequality is not always unjust: there are cases in which treating unequally is required by the duty to show equal concern and respect. Second, it suggests that freedom can sometimes conflict with justice: some inequalities may be required by the duty to show equal concern and respect even if they restrict people's freedom. Third, it makes clear why we cannot appeal directly to equality or freedom when arguing about what counts as just or unjust; instead we must first determine whether a certain action treats people with equal concern and respect (and thus satisfies the relevant requirements of justice) before determining whether such treatment is required because it promotes their freedom (or violates their rights).
Input Zen and the meaning of life
AI writes: This paper will argue that the first half of the book contains a Zen-like approach to life, which includes four elements: 1) Being aware of one's own nature and accepting it; 2) Living in accordance with one's nature; 3) Having an awareness of death (which can be a positive experience); and 4) Living in harmony with others, including those who are different from oneself. The second half of the book is based on a Stoic philosophy. It contains three components: 1) To have control over our desires so as not to succumb to them; 2) To understand that what we desire is ephemeral; and 3) Understanding how our actions affect others. In this way, I hope that readers will consider whether there might be more than meets the eye when reading about karma and reincarnation.
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