Lu, Liu, Li, Xiang, Ma, Zhong, Chen, He, Huang, Zhang, Liu, Zheng (2019) Reliability and validity of the mandarin version of the tinnitus primary function questionnaire: A preliminary observational study Medicine 98(25) e16104


Tinnitus is a prevalent condition among different populations. As the nature of tinnitus is subjective, self-reported measures have been validated and utilized to assess psychometric properties of tinnitus patients. Without exception, Chinese clinicians have administered these measures to patients in mainland China after cross-cultural adaptation. However, shortcomings of these Mandarin measures limited the widespread use of them. Measures which can be fully adapted to the context of Chinese tinnitus patients are still needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Mandarin Tinnitus Primary Function Questionnaire (TPFQ-M) in a Chinese population.In this observational questionnaire study, we recruited 350 subjects with primary tinnitus from hearing clinics of West China Hospital and administered the TPFQ-M, Mandarin Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI-M), and a systematic hearing test battery.The subjects finished the TPFQ-M within 3 minutes. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that a 4-factor model was close to fit. The Cronbach alpha of TPFQ-M was 0.925, and test-retest reliability was reasonable with a 7-day test interval (ICC = 0.857, P < .001; 95% CI: 0.764-0.915). Test-retest reliabilities of subdomains were not parallel to each other, with 0.612 for Emotion, 0.766 for Sleep, 0.860 for Concentration, and 0.897 for Hearing. The convergent validity of TPFQ-M compared to the THI-M was moderate (r = 0.705, P < .001; 95% CI: 0.647-0.754).The TPFQ-M, which shows high internal consistency and good factor structure, is simple and relatively easy to administer in busy clinics. Additional in-depth research involving multiple centers in mainland China is warranted.