Wang, Chen, Liu, Tian (2019) Issues on peritoneal metastasis of gastric cancer: an update World journal of surgical oncology 17(1) 215


Peritoneal metastasis (PM) is one of the most common forms of metastasis with a very poor prognosis in patients with gastric cancer (GC). The mechanisms, diagnosis, and management of PM remain controversial. Stephen Paget's "seed-and-soil" hypothesis gives us an illustration of the mechanisms of PM. Recently, hematogenous metastasis and exosomes from GC are identified as novel mechanisms for PM. Diagnostic accuracy of conventional imaging modalities for PM is not satisfactory, but texture analysis may be a useful adjunct for the prediction of PM. Biological markers in peritoneal washings are helpful in identifying patients at high risk of PM, but many limitations remain to be overcome. Response of PM from systemic chemotherapy alone is very limited. However, conversion therapy is confirmed to be safe and able to prolong the survival of GC patients with PM. As an important part of conversion therapy, intraperitoneal chemotherapy with taxanes has become an ideal approach with several advantages. Additionally, gastrectomy should be considered in patients who would tolerate surgery if a remarkable response to chemotherapy was observed. Texture analysis is a reliable adjunct for the prediction of PM, and conversion therapy provides a new choice for GC patients with PM. The underlying mechanisms and new biological markers for GC patients with PM should be the direction of future studies. Furthermore, significant aspects of conversion therapy, such as timing and method of the operation, and the indications remain to be clarified.