Mulak (2020) An overview of the neuroendocrine system in Parkinson's disease: what is the impact on diagnosis and treatment? Expert review of neurotherapeutics 20(2) 127-135


Introduction: A growing body of evidence indicates that neuroendocrine interactions may occur at all levels of the brain-gut-microbiota axis, which is directly involved in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD).Areas covered: The review presents some current and emerging concepts regarding the organization and functioning of the neuroendocrine system as well as the role of neuroendocrine disturbances in the pathophysiology and symptomatology of PD. The concept of the brain-gut-microbiota triad interactions in the neuroendocrine system and PD is proposed. In PD, dysregulation of the main neuroendocrine axes coordinated by the hypothalamus is accompanied by disruptions at the peripheral level, which involve enteroendocrine cells producing numerous neuropeptides. Moreover, the important role of the gut microbiota as a main coordinator of immune and neuroendocrine interactions is discussed. The potential diagnostic and therapeutic implications in the context of the recent developments in the fields of neuroendocrinology and neurodegeneration are also presented.Expert opinion: Unraveling complex neuroendocrine interactions in the course of PD may provide crucial diagnostic implications and novel therapeutic approaches including the application of gut neuropeptides and gut microbiota modification.