Mc Carlie, Boucher, Bragg (2020) Molecular basis of bacterial disinfectant resistance Drug resistance updates : reviews and commentaries in antimicrobial and anticancer chemotherapy 48() 100672


Antibiotic resistance could accelerate humanity towards an already fast-approaching post-antibiotic era, where disinfectants and effective biosecurity measures will be critically important to control microbial diseases. Disinfectant resistance has the potential to change our way of life from compromising food security to threatening our medical health systems. Resistance to antimicrobial agents occurs through either intrinsic or acquired resistance mechanisms. Acquired resistance occurs through the efficient transfer of mobile genetic elements, which can carry single, or multiple resistance determinants. Drug resistance genes may form part of integrons, transposons and insertions sequences which are capable of intracellular transfer onto plasmids or gene cassettes. Thereafter, resistance plasmids and gene cassettes mobilize by self-transmission between bacteria, increasing the prevalence of drug resistance determinants in a bacterial population. An accumulation of drug resistance genes through these mechanisms gives rise to multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria. The study of this mobility is integral to safeguard current antibiotics, disinfectants and other antimicrobials. Literature evidence, however, indicates that knowledge regarding disinfectant resistance is severly limited. Genome engineering such as the CRISPR-Cas system, has identified disinfectant resistance genes, and reversed resistance altogether in certain prokaryotes. Demonstrating that these techniques could prove invaluable in the combat against disinfectant resistance by uncovering the secrets of MDR bacteria. Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

对抗生素的抗药性可以加速人类迈向一个已经快要接近的后抗生素时代,在这个时代,消毒剂和有效的生物安全措施对控制微生物疾病至关重要。消毒剂抗性有可能改变我们的生活方式,从损害食品安全到威胁我们的医疗卫生系统。对抗菌剂的耐药性通过内在或获得性耐药机制发生。获得性抗性通过有效转移可携带单个或多个抗性决定簇的遗传基因而发生。耐药基因可以形成整合素,转座子和插入序列的一部分,这些序列能够在细胞内转移到质粒或基因盒上。此后,抗性质粒和基因盒通过细菌之间的自我传递而动员,从而增加了细菌种群中药物抗性决定簇的普遍性。通过这些机制,耐药基因的积累会产生多药耐药(MDR)细菌。对这种流动性的研究对于保护当前的抗生素,消毒剂和其他抗菌药物是必不可少的。但是,文献证据表明,有关耐消毒剂的知识受到严重限制。 CRISPR-Cas系统等基因组工程已经确定了消毒剂抗性基因,并且在某些原核生物中完全逆转了抗性。证明这些技术通过发现MDR细菌的秘密,在抵抗消毒剂耐药性方面可证明是无价的。版权所有©2019.由Elsevier Ltd发布。