Pähler Vor der Holte, Fangk, Glombitza, Wilkens, Welkoborsky (2020) Prognostic factors and risk factors for development and recurrence of sinonasal papillomas: potential role of different HPV subtypes European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery 277(3) 767-775
A retrospective study was conducted to identify and assess potential clinical and molecularbiological risk factors for development and recurrence of sinonasal papillomas (i.e. inverted (IP), fungiform (FP), and oncocytic papillomas (OCP)). Investigated risk factors included age, gender, tumor size and localization, tobacco smoking, regular alcohol consumption, essential hypertension, anticoagulant medication, allergies, surgical approach, and HPV infection. Risk factors were evaluated by regression analysis. Apart from age and incomplete tumor resection, the recurrence of Schneiderian papillomas is independent of conventional risk factors. Patients in this study displayed higher HPV infections rates in IP (38.8%) and in FP (100%) than in healthy mucosa, which is reported 0-5.8% in Germany and central Europe. The proportion of HPV-positive IP decreased with advanced tumor stages: 100% HPV positivity of T1 IP (2/2), 40.9% of T2 IP (9/22), and 35.7% of T3 IP (20/56). Most commonly detected HPV types were HPV 6, 11, and 16; however, patients in this study also displayed HPV types that have rarely or not at all been described in sinonasal papillomas before, such as HPV 58, 42, 83, and 91. Recurrent sinonasal papillomas displayed higher rates of HPV infections than non-recurrent tumors. Young age at initial diagnosis and incomplete tumor resection are risk factors for recurrence of sinonasal papillomas. Our data suggest that HPV infection supports development and/or perpetuation of sinonasal papillomas. Additionally, sinonasal papillomas seem to display a unique subset of HPV genotypes, including genotypes that have not often been described before.