Tian, Qu, Jiao, Wang, Geng, Griffin, Shan (2020) Methionine enkephalin inhibits influenza A virus infection through upregulating antiviral state in RAW264.7 cells International immunopharmacology 78() 106032
MENK, as an immune adjuvant, has potential immune-regulatory activity on innate and adaptive immune cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the antiviral effect of MENK on influenza virus-infected murine macrophage cells (RAW264.7) and its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that MENK markedly inhibited influenza A virus (H1N1) replication in pre- and post-MENK treatment, especially in pre-MENK treatment. The mechanisms exploration revealed that MENK (10 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the nucleoprotein (NP) of influenza virus and up-regulated levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-β compared with those in H1N1 control group. Further experiments confirmed that antiviral effects of MENK was associated with promotion of opioid receptor (MOR) as well as activation of NF-κB p65 inducing cellular antiviral status. The data suggest that MENK should be potential candidate for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment against H1N1 influenza virus. Copyright © 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.